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Tag: Guwahati

View of Shillong with Shillong Peak in the background.

The restless records of Assam

On January 21, 1972, the Indian state of Assam lost its capital Shillong to a new state, Meghalaya. Shillong had been the capital of Assam since colonial times, and the Assamese were proud of their capital, a charming hill station at 4,900 feet above sea level. A cosmopolitan, polyglot town, Shillong was surrounded by tribal land where the dominant language was Khasi rather than Assamese.

The location of Shillong became an issue after the state legislative assembly passed the Assam Official Language Bill, 1960, which declared:

Assamese and English … shall be used for all or any of the official purposes of the State of Assam.1

The tribal population of the Khasi Hills felt marginalized by the elevation of Assamese over their own language. Khasi tribal leaders joined leaders from the Garo and Jaintia Hills from to form the Hill State Movement, agitating for separation of the tribal areas of the Meghalaya Plateau from Assam. In 1970, Meghalaya became and autonomous state in Assam, and in 1972 it became a full-fledged state within the Indian union.

The capital of Assam moved from the hills down to Dispur, a suburb of Gauhati (Guwahati) in the Brahmaputra River Valley. (Dispur has since been swallowed up in Guwahati’s urban sprawl.) Assam government offices and institutions moved down to Dispur. In 1980, the records of Assam shifted from Shillong and were set up in the Assam State Archives in Dispur. Meanwhile, the Government of Meghalaya set up its own State Records Room in Shillong. The records kept there were about the period after the split with Assam, because the records from before had moved down to Dispur.

This is something I wish I had understood before going to Guwahati and Shillong for research: most of the pre-1972 records are in Guwahati, even if they pertain directly to Shillong. After spending a week in Guwahati, I headed up to Shillong and went on some wild-goose chases looking for things that were back in Guwahati.

I spent two days in Shillong looking for the Shillong Times from the 1960s. I had already looked for the newspaper in the Library of Congress, which has practically everything. Although the LoC does have master copies of the paper from the time period I was interested in, there were no copies that patrons could read. No matter, I thought; I would look for Shillong Times in India. It seemed reasonable to assume that I would be able to find the newspaper in the city where it was published—but I couldn’t.

I started my wild-goose chase at the Central Library, but the head librarian told me that they only had post-1978 issues in Shillong; everything earlier was down in Guwahati. She suggested that I try Sacred Heart College Library and NEHU (North-Eastern Hill University) Library. I spent the afternoon visiting the two institutions, but the helpful staff at both failed to turn up anything. The next day, I went looking for the Shillong Times office, which a librarian at NEHU had assured me would have what I needed. It took me a while to find the office, as it was tucked away in a residential neighborhood in the Rilbong area south of the city center. In Rilbong, I had to ask a couple of people before I found the newspaper’s office, housed in a yellow Anglo-Assamese bungalow. There was no sign out front, just two brass medallions on the gate, one that said “S” and the other “T.” I inquired in the office about the newspaper from the 1960s. An employee went into the back and returned with the oldest issue they had, from 1986.

The mini-partition of Assam imposed an archival amnesia on Shillong. The Central Library does not even have archives of the city’s newspaper before the split—and neither does the head office of the paper.

A southern magnolia in front of the State Central Library Shillong.

A southern magnolia in front of the State Central Library Shillong.

The NEHU Library is in a grove of tall, skinny pines that could almost be in Alabama.

The NEHU Library is in a grove of tall, skinny pines that could almost be in Alabama.

Compound wall of the Assam State Archives, Guwahati.

Compound wall of the Assam State Archives, Guwahati.

Links

  1. The full quotation is: “Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 346 and 347 of the Constitution of India and subject as hereinafter provided, Assamese and English, and when the latter is replaced under Article 343 of the Constitution of India, Hindi in place of English shall be used for all or any of the official purposes of the State of Assam.” The Assam Gazette, October 10, 1960, pp. 623-25. []

Sweepers and Scavengers

A westerner who knows nothing else about India is likely to have at least heard of the country’s “sacred cows,” which roam crowded cities and answer to no masters but themselves.1 While it is true that Hindus refrain from eating beef on religious grounds, India’s street cattle serve an important practical purpose apart from their religious significance. In Indian cities, towns, and rural areas, cows and other animal scavengers consume organic waste that might otherwise become a breeding-ground for diseases. Despite the religious proscriptions against killing cows, animal scavengers are by no means unique to India. In the nineteenth century, feral hogs performed the same task in American cities.2

A well-fed goat picks through offerings at a temple in Guwahati.

A well-fed goat picks through offerings at a temple in Guwahati.

A trash pile in Guwahati, with a feral hog rooting through it.

A trash pile in Guwahati, with a feral hog rooting through it.

Scavengers do a useful job, by removing and repurposing materials that would otherwise go unused. Street cattle produce dung that is used as a low-grade fuel source. In a similar fashion, human scavengers sort through waste—both organic and inorganic—in search of items of use. This is another task that is not unique to India, and was practiced on a large scale in the West as recently as a century ago.3 Richard Farmer wrote that societies go though phases of wasting, from the poor, underdeveloped society where junk goes unused, to the society of affluence and cheap goods, where waste is generated in such quantities that it piles up and does not go to any use. In between is the intermediary society, where labor is cheap but materials are expensive, which means that items that broken items get repaired or repurposed.4 Modern India is an intermediate society, where much of what a westerner might consider worthless waste gets reused in another form.

Cow dung drying on a wall in Varanasi.

Cow dung drying on a wall in Varanasi.

As an example of the reuse of materials in India, expat blogger Dave Praeger relates that empty liquor bottles found new uses after he and his wife discarded them outside of his flat in Delhi. Sheila, the building’s maid, saved the Praegers’ liquor bottles and sold them to a kabadiwallah, a scrap-dealer. (Kabadiwallahs are twenty-first century Indian counterparts to nineteenth-century American ragpickers, who collected rags for reprocessing into paper.) The liquor bottles would find their way to stores, where customers would buy them and fill them with cheaper brands of liquor for serving to less-honored guests.5

Rickshaws and Pepsi bottles find new uses in modern-day Kolkata (Calcutta).

Rickshaws and Pepsi bottles find new uses in modern-day Kolkata (Calcutta).

Scavenging takes place at the end as well as the beginning of the waste stream. Since being featured in the Dominique Lapierre novel The City of Joy, the Kolkata (Calcutta) dump has gained international notoriety for the trash scavenging that takes place there.6 The Calcutta Telegraph reported in 2011 that hundreds of children make a living from scavenging through the city’s Dhapa dump. The children sell their scavenged plastic and metal for Rs. 20 or 30 each day. The scavenging work is dirty and dangerous, and many of the children turn to tobacco and alcohol before the age of ten.7

Kevin Lynch notes in Wasting Away that contact with waste is socially polluting and therefore degrading. Lynch quotes V.S. Naipaul describing sweepers at work in India. After the sweepers had passed, the floor was as dirty as it had been before. According to Naipaul, the purpose of the sweepers was not to clean, but to be degraded.8 The quote reminds me an episode from my sojourn in northeast India. Returning to the Garo Hills from a shopping expedition in Guwahati, I stopped with my friends at a dhaba (roadside restaurant) on the Goalpara Road. After we had take our seats at a dirty metal table, a weary-looking boy came over to our table and wiped it down with a rag. His cleaning was completely ineffective at first; like the sweepers that Naipaul observed, he left the table as dirty as he had found it. Only after one of my friends had snapped at the boy several times did he actually clean the table.

  1. A 2006 “News Brief” in the spoof newspaper The Onion mentioned among the hazards on Air India flights: “wandering cows that flight attendants refuse to remove.” “Air India Now Offers Business Caste Seating,” The Onion, http://www.theonion.com/articles/air-india-now-offers-business-caste-seating,5247/ (accessed April 4, 2012). For mid-twentieth-century American conceptions of Indian cows, see Andrew J. Rotter, Comrades at Odds: The United States and India, 1947-1964 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000), 17-18. []
  2. Martin V. Melosi, Garbage in the Cities: Refuse, Reform, and the Environment (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005), 18. []
  3. See Susan Strasser, Waste and Want: A Social History of Trash (New York: Metropolitan Books, 1999), 114-118. []
  4. Cited in Kevin Lynch and Michael Southworth, Wasting Away (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1990), 68-69. []
  5. Dave Praeger, “The Economy of Our Empties,” Our Delhi Struggle, http://ourdelhistruggle.com/2009/08/13/economy-of-empties/ (accessed April 5, 2012). []
  6. See Dominique Lapierre, The City of Joy, trans. Kathryn Spink (New York: Doubleday, 1985), 401-408. Both the book and subsequent movie versions of City of Joy came under criticism for perpetuating western conceptions of Kolkata as the symbol of overwhelming poverty. Jeffrey N. Dupée, Traveling India in the Age of Gandhi (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2008), 108-109. Despite the backlash against the book, street sellers in Kolkata sell Indian-printed copies of City of Joy. []
  7. Samhita, “Childhood lost in garbage dump,” The Telegraph (Calcutta), September 7, 2011, http://www.telegraphindia.com/1110907/jsp/calcutta/story_14441140.jsp (accessed April 5, 2012). []
  8. Lynch, Wasting Away, 16-17. []

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